Removal Bibliography

Please click here for a PDF of the Removal Bibliography.


  • “A Journey Through the South in 1836: Diary of James D. Davidson.” Journal of Southern History 1 (August 1935).
  • Bolton, S. Charles. “Jeffersonian Indian Removal and the Emergence of Arkansas Territory” The Arkansas Historical Quarterly Vol. 62, No. 3, The Louisiana Purchase and the Peoples of Arkansas (Autumn, 2003), pp. 253-271.
  • Cave, Alfred “Abuse of Power: Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act of 1830”. The Historian. (John Wiley & Sons) (December 2003).
  • Cushman, H.B., History of Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians. Greenville: Headlight Printing House, 1899.
  • deTocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America; translated, edited, and with an introduction by Harvey C. Mansfield and Delba Winthrop. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
  • Foreman, Grant, ed. Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972.
  • Ghere, David L. “Indian Removal: Manifest Destiny or Hypocrisy?” OAH Magazine of HistoryVol. 9, No. 4, Native Americans (Summer, 1995), pp. 32-37.
  • Heidler, David Stephen. Indian Removal. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006.
  • Henson, Harvey. “Locating lost graves along the Trail of Tears using non-invasive geophysical methods,” Geological Society of America, May 2005, Vol. 37, Issue 5, pp. 93.
  • Lt. J. T. Sprague to C. A. Harris, April 1, 1837. Creek Emigration S249-37. Washington, D.C.: National Archives Microfilm Publications. Microcopy M234, Roll 238.
  • Lyon, Owen. “The Trail of the Quapaw” The Arkansas Historical QuarterlyVol. 9, No. 3 (Autumn, 1950), pp. 205-213.
  • Mancall, Peter C. and James H. Merrell. American encounters : natives and newcomers from European contact to Indian removal, 1500-1850. New York: Routledge, 2000.
  • Memphis Region Sourcebook: Arkansas, Mississippi, Tennessee, Creating a Strategic Regional Future; the Report of the Governor’s Alliance for Regional Excellence. Memphis: Memphis Area Chamber of Commerce, 2001.
  • Minges, Patrick. “Beneath the Underdog: Race, Religion, and the Trail of Tears” American Indian Quarterly Vol. 25, No. 3 (Summer, 2001), pp. 453-479.
  • National Park Service. Trail of Tears National Historic Trail: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee United States. Denver: Denver Service Center, 1992.
  • National Trail of Tears Association. Electronic document,
  • Paige, Amanda L. “Memphis, Tennessee, on the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail: A Site Report.” Sequoyah Research Center. (accessed 25 March 2011).
  • Paige, Amanda L., Fuller L. Bumpers, and Daniel F. Littlefield, Jr. The North Little Rock Site on the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail: Historical Contexts Report. Little Rock: American Native Press Archives, 2003.
  • Remini, Robert Vincent. The legacy of Andrew Jackson : essays on democracy, Indian removal, and Slavery. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988.
  • Rozema, Vicki ed. Voices from the Trail of Tears. Winston-Salem: John F. Blair, publisher, 2003.
  • Spence, Mark David. Dispossessing the Wilderness : Indian removal and the making of the national parks. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Stewart, Mark. The Indian Removal Act: Forced Relocation. New York: Compass Point Books, 2006.
  • Sturgis, Amy H. The Trail of Tears and Indian Removal. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007.
  • Wallace, Anthony F. C. Long Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.
  • Young, Mary E. “Indian Removal and Land Allotment: The Civilized Tribes and Jacksonian Justice” The American Historical ReviewVol. 64, No. 1 (Oct., 1958), pp. 31-45.


  • Anderson, William L., ed. Cherokee removal: Before and After. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992.
  • Bealer, Alex W. Only the Names Remain; the Cherokees and the Trail of Tears. Boston: Brown University Press, 1972
  • Ehle, John. Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. New York: Doubleday, 1988.
  • Ellis, Jerry. Walking the Trail: One Man’s Journey along the Cherokee Trail of Tears. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001.
  • Hoig, Stan. The Cherokees and Their Chiefs: In the Wake of Empire. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1998.
  • Hoig, Stan. Night of the Cruel Moon: Cherokee Removal and the Trail of Tears. New York: Facts on File, 1996.
  • Johnston, Carolyn. Cherokee Women In Crisis : Trail of Tears, Civil War, and allotment, 1838-1907. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2003.
  • King, Gail, Lamar Marshall, Larry Smith, and Michael Wren. “Alabama Collection Camps, Forts, Emigrating Depots and Travel Routes Used During the Cherokee Removal of 1838-1839.” Southeastern Anthropological Institute, Muscle Shoals, Alabama, 2009.
  • Magliocca, Gerard N. “The Cherokee Removal and the Fourteenth Amendment” Duke Law Journal Vol. 53, No. 3 (Dec., 2003), pp. 875-965.
  • McLoughlin, William Gerald. After the Trail of Tears : the Cherokees’ struggle for sovereignty, 1839-1880. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
  • Perdue, Theda. The Cherokee Removal: a brief history with documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1995.
  • Perdue, Theda. The Cherokee Nation and the Trail of Tears. New York: Viking, 2006.
  • Perdue, Theda. Cherokee Women. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.
  • Strickland, William. “The rhetoric of removal and the trail of tears: Cherokee speaking against Jackson’s Indian removal policy, 1828-1832” Southern Communication Journal; 1982, Vol. 47 Issue: Number 3: p292-309.
  • Thornton, Russell “Cherokee Population Losses during the Trail of Tears: A New Perspective and a New Estimate” Ethnohistory, Vol. 31, No. 4 (1984), pp. 289-300.


  • Atkinson, James. Splendid Land, Splendid People: The Chicksaw, to Removal. Tuscaloosa: University Alabama Press, 2003.
  • Gibson, Arrell. The Chickasaws. Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.
  • Kilpinen, Jon T. “The Supreme Court’s Role in Choctaw and Chickasaw Dispossession.” Geographical Review Vol. 94, No. 4 (Oct., 2004), pp. 484-501.


  • Akers, Donna. Living in the Land of Death 1830-1860. East Lansing, Michigan : Michigan State University Press, 2004.
  • DeRosier, Arthur. “Choctaw Removal of 1831: Civilian Efforts.” Journal of the West 6 (April 1967): 237–47.
  • DeRosier, Arthur. Removal of Choctaw Indians. Knoxville: Univ Tennessee Press, 1970.
  • Kidwell, Clara Sue and Charles Roberts. The Choctaws: A Critical Bibliography. Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2000.
  • Kilpinen, Jon T. “The Supreme Court’s Role in Choctaw and Chickasaw Dispossession.” Geographical Review Vol. 94, No. 4 (Oct., 2004), pp. 484-501.
  • Walter, Williams. Southeastern Indians: Since the Removal Era. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 2009.
  • Wells, Samuel J. and Roseanna Tuby. After Removal: The Choctaw in Mississippi. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, I986.


  • Debo, Angie. Road to Disappearance: A History of the Creek Indians. Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.
  • Green, Michael D. The politics of Indian Removal : Creek government and society in crisis. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982.

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